Table of Contents

Introduction: A Cultural Approach to Interaction Design                  1

The Collective Process of Design 1

Designing the Unfamiliar 3

How (Not) to Talk about Design 8

  • New Media/Digital Medium 8
  • Intuitive/Transparent 9
  • Interface Design/Interaction Design 10
  • User/Interactor 11
  • Content/Information 11
  • Interactivity/Agency 12
  • Artifact-Environment-Application-Device-System 13

Media Expand the Scope of Our Shared Attention 13

The Medium is the Method 16

I Changing Technologies, Lasting Innovations             23

1          Design in an Evolving Medium                 25

Design as Framing and Reframing 25

Three Layers of Media Design: Inscription, Transmission, Representation 29

Design Explorations: Exploring Design in a New Medium 46

2          Affordances of the Digital Medium                     51

The Four Affordances 51

The Computer is a Procedural Medium 51

  • Draw on Computer Science Concepts and Conventions 52

The Computer is a Participatory Medium 55

  • Draw on HCI Concepts and Conventions 59

The Computer is an Encyclopedic Medium 66

  • Draw on Information Science Concepts and Conventions 68

The Computer is a Spatial Medium 70

  • Draw on Visual Design Concepts and Conventions 75

Design Explorations: Exploring the Affordances of the Digital Medium 80

3          Maximizing the Four Affordances                       87

The Grid of Affordances 87

Shaping and Satisfying Interactors’ Expectations 96

Designing for Agency and Immersion 100

Design Explorations: Exploring for Maximizing Digital Affordances 103

II Designing Expressive Procedures       105

4          Computational Strategies of Representation    107

Computation as Symbol Manipulation 107

Attribution of Processes into Flow Charts and Pseudocode 113

Scripting Behaviors 119

State 123

Modularity and Encapsulation 127

Design Explorations: Computational Strategies of Representation 132

5          Building Procedural Complexity                         137

Objects, Classes, Methods, Inheritance 137

Substitution Systems 138

Simulations of Complex Systems 141

Emergence 147

Computational Procedures Reflect Cultural Values 148

Design Explorations: Strategies for Procedural Complexity 155

III Spatial Design Strategies                      159

6          Defining and Navigating Spaces and Places       161

Lists, Tables, and Other Containers 161

Maps 170

Places versus Spaces 172

Abstract Space 182

Design Explorations: Spatial Organization 188

7          The Library Model for Collocating Information   191

Aggregating Information, Preserving Knowledge 191

The Catalog and the Shelf 194

Labels as Identifiers, Descriptors, and Pointers 201

Classification Schemes 203

Information Organization as a Taxonomy of Knowledge 209

Designing for Navigation with Appropriate Labels 212

Design Explorations: Collocation in the Emerging Digital Library 218

IV Designing Encyclopedic Resources   221

8  The Database Model: Strategies for Segmentation and Juxtaposition of Information                  223

Semantic Segmentation 223

Flat File Database 226

Relational Databases 230

Navigating and Visualizing Large Databases 237

From Tables to Objects 240

The Persistence of Ambiguity 241

Design Explorations: The Database Model 246

9          The Structured Document Model: Using Standardized Metadata to Share Knowledge                251

Structured Documents Are the Basis of the World Wide Web 251

Making Meaning with Metadata 256

Searching the Web with Metadata and Social Networks 260

Structured Wikis and the Social Creation of Knowledge 272

XML and the Semantic Web 276

Design Explorations: Documents Structured with Metadata 281

V Scripting Interaction      287

10       The Tool Model: Augmenting the Expressive Power of the Hand    289

Pointing, Grabbing, and Expressive Gestures 289

Efficiency, Learnability, Transparency 300

Expressivity and Virtuosity 304

Design Explorations: The Tool Model 313

11  The Machine Model: Visibility and Control as Design Goals          

Designing for Visibility 319

Empowering Interactors with Control Structures 327

The Appliance Model: Widgets and Applets Sharing Information 332

Toward More Expressive Machines 335

Design Explorations: The Machine Model 338

12       The Companion Model: Helpful Accompaniment as a Design Goal      343

The Computer as a Social Presence 343

Synchronization 345

Politeness 352

Conversational Structure 354

The Perils of Personification 356

Fantasies of the Magical Servant 361

Responsive Anticipation 367

Design Explorations: The Companion Model 370

13  The Game Model: Scripting Interaction as Structured Play   377

Game Patterns as Building Blocks for Interaction Design 377

Convening Shared Attention with Game Mechanics 383

Playing with Media Conventions 388

Playing with Cognition 395

Replay as Repetition with Variation 398

The Mechanic is the Message 400

Patterns Make Reality 402

Design Explorations: The Game Model of Interaction 403

Glossary 407

Bibliography 445

Image Credits 455

Index 467

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